HEPLER STRAND 1990 PDF

The concept of pharmaceutical care founded by Hepler and Strand in the early s. [1] The American society of health system pharmacist. According to the definition of Hepler & Strand pharmaceutical care is “the definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life” (Hepler and Strand, ). 1 Hepler, CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J. Hosp Pharm, ; 2 Commission to Implement Change.

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The Group recognized that the team approach is vital to achieve the optimum use of limited resources – both human and financial – in meeting healthcare needs in all countries. Where the pharmacist alone provides pharmaceutical care to a patient by initiating tsrand therapy with a non-prescription drug or acts within a team on a prescribed therapy, the standards of the pharmacists activities should conform to national pharmacy standards based on the International Pharmaceutical Federation FIP Guide to Good Pharmacy Practice.

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Some 12, deaths and 15, hospitalizations due to adverse drug reactions ADRs were reported to the FDA inand many went unreported. Bearing in mind the particular stages of development of healthcare delivery and pharmaceutical services in particular dtrand, pharmacists will need to use their professional discretion in setting priorities for the achievement of these objectives.

Pharmacy’s opportunity to mature as a profession by accepting its social responsibility to reduce preventable drug-related heplr and mortality is explored. Monitoring of pharmacy manpower development. Aspects of pharmaceutical care. A position paper Entry-level Education in Pharmacy: Consequently, the Group strqnd that pharmaceutical care provision will extend beyond the traditional pharmacy establishments and that pharmacists will have to collaborate with one another to ensure continuity of pharmaceutical care.

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Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. The Group considered pharmaceutical care to be an overarching practice philosophy to which all pharmacists should aspire. It is not enough to dispense the correct drug or to provide sophisticated pharmaceutical services; nor will it be sufficient to devise new technical functions.

Pharmacists and their institutions must stop looking inward and start redirecting their energies to the greater social good. Although this definition focuses on drug therapy in the stgand patient, the Group chose to expand the beneficiary of pharmaceutical care to the public as a whole and also to recognize the pharmacist as a health care provider who can actively participate in illness prevention and health promotion along with other members of the health care team.

Changing the focus of practice from products and biological systems to ensuring the best drug therapy and patient safety will raise pharmacy’s level of responsibility and require philosophical, organizational, and functional changes.

Pharmacy’s reprofessionalization will be completed only when all pharmacists accept their social mandate to ensure the safe and effective drug therapy of the individual patient.

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy News. Drug-related morbidity and mortality are often preventable, and pharmaceutical services can reduce the number of ADRs, the length of hospital stays, and the cost of care. Manpower imbalances in pharmacy. Alexandria VA 6. The reasons for this include an increase in the number of elderly in the population and the trend to shorten periods of hospital treatment.

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Pharmacy manpower development for health care systems. Pharmacy has shed the apothecary role but has not yet been restored to its ztrand importance in medical care.

Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care.

Hosp Pharm, ; A Commitment to Change. It will be necessary to set new practice standards, establish cooperative relationships with other health-care professions, and determine strategies for marketing pharmaceutical care. The knowledge and expertise of pharmacists. Pharmacists must abandon factionalism and adopt patient-centered pharmaceutical care as their philosophy of practice. In certain countries, more patients are being treated with complex therapies in intermediate care facilities or in their homes.

The scope of pharmacy and the functions of pharmacists. Thus, although the roles of pharmacists are considered in this report, the Group heplr that pharmaceutical care is not provided in isolation from other health care services, but in collaboration with patients, physicians, nurses and other healthcare providers. Pharmaceutical care focuses the attitudes, behaviours, commitments, concerns, ethics, functions, knowledge, responsibilities and skills of the pharmacist on the provision of drug therapy with the heper of achieving definite therapeutic outcomes toward patient health and quality of life.