A sectional view of an image orthicon is shown in the below figure. It has three main sections: image section, scanning section and electron. Image orthicon definition, a camera tube, more sensitive than the orthicon, in which an electron image generated by a photocathode is focused on one side of a. The image orthicon (10) was developed during World War II to solve some of the problems of its predecessors in the camera-tube family. These included.

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Light from the scene to be televised is focused on the photocathode surface by a lens system and the optical image thus formed results in the release of electrons from each point on the photocathode in proportion to the incident light intensity. Although the idea of using color stripe filters over the target was not new, the Trinicon was the only tube to use the primary RGB colors.

Image orthicon

Wireless World, number Flemingand Orthicno Busch gave a complete mathematical interpretation in A review of some television pick-up tubes.

The phenomenon known as magnetic focusing was discovered by A. The photo-electrons are focused on to the target by the combined action of the electrostatic field and a longitudinal magnetic field, the latter being produced by an external coil.

Proceedings of the Physical Society. The light came from either an illuminator mounted around the target, or in more professional cameras from a light source on the base of tuge tube and guided to the target by light piping.

The inside of the glass face plate at the front is coated with a silver antimony coating sensitized with cesium, to serve as photocathode. It will be appreciated that when the beam moves from a less positive portion of tubr target to a more positive portion, the signal output voltage across the load resistor changes in the positive direction.


These are usually seen as display devices as used in television receivers orhticon computer displays.

Draw and explain image orthicon camera tube in detail with advantages and disadvantages.

Therefore, secondary electrons are emitted from the surface of the isolating material when the electron image reaches the target, and the resulting positive charges are stored directly onto the surface of the isolated material. As indicated in the figure, positive accelerating potentials of 80 to volts are applied to grid 2, camerq 3, and grid 4 which is connected internally to the metalized conductive coating on tubd inside wall of the tube. This effect was actually “cultivated” by tube manufacturers to a certain extent, as a small, carefully controlled amount of the dark halo has the effect of “crispening” the visual image due to the contrast effect.

Inthe EMI engineers Blumlein and McGee filed for patents for television transmitting systems where a charge storage plate was shielded by a pair of special gridsa negative or slightly positive grid lay very close to the plate, and a positive one was placed further away.

Step to home television.

Radio and Communication Engineering, volume 97, issue The history of television, to Afterand the introduction of the diode-gun Plumbicon tube, the resolution of both types was so high, compared to the maximum limits of the broadcasting standard, that the Saticon’s resolution advantage became moot. On the other side of the ocean, the RCA team led by Albert Rose began working in on a low-velocity scanning beam device they dubbed the orthicon.

Video camera tube

The electron optics of camera tubes differ considerably. Navythe first tubes being delivered in January In a letter to Nature published in OctoberCampbell-Swinton also announced the results of some “not very successful experiments” he had conducted with G. While still a part of Philips, the company purchased EEV’s English Electric Valve lead oxide camera tube business, and gained a monopoly in lead-oxide tube production.


Electrons inside these long focus coils take helical paths as they travel along the length of the tube. Principles of Operation Schematic arrangement of the 4. New TV Camera Tube. An International History of the Formative Years.

They had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting iage image onto a selenium-coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam. Museum of the Broadcast Television Camera.

Low-velocity scanning beam tubes have several advantages; there are low levels of spurious signals and high efficiency of conversion of light into signal, so that the signal output is maximum.

The multiplier also permits the use of an external amplifier of lower gain. Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay ikage switch.

Image Orthicon Camera Tubes

Imge image section contains a semi-transparent photo-cathode on the inside of the faceplate, and electrodes to provide an accelerating electrostatic field to the target. In effect, the electrons travel along the lines of force, although helically, in detail. Deflection fields bend the lines of force with negligible defocusingand the electrons follow the lines of force. They have excellent resolution compared to image orthicons, but lack the artificially sharp edges of IO tubes, which cause some of the viewing audience to perceive them as softer.

The super-Emitron is a combination of the image dissector and the Emitron.