Discriminant analysis builds a predictive model for group membership. The model is composed of a discriminant function (or, for more than two groups, a set of. Chapter 6 Discriminant Analyses. SPSS – Discriminant Analyses. Data file used: In this example the topic is criteria for acceptance into a graduate. Multivariate Data Analysis Using SPSS. Lesson 2. MULTIPLE DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS (MDA). In multiple linear regression, the objective is to model one.

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For example, when there are three groups, we could estimate 1 a function for discriminating between group 1 and groups 2 and 3 combined, and 2 another function for discriminating between group 2 and group 3.

The interpretation of the results of a two-group problem is straightforward and closely follows the logic of multiple regression: In this example, we have selected three predictors: Eigenvalue — These are the eigenvalues of the matrix product of the inverse of the within-group sums-of-squares analys cross-product matrix and the between-groups sums-of-squares and analse matrix.

Thus, social will have the greatest impact of the three on the first discriminant score. As you can see, the customer service employees tend to be at the more social negative end of dimension 1; the dispatchers tend to be at the opposite end, with the mechanics in the middle. SPSS allows users to specify different priors with the priors subcommand.

Discriminant Analysis

To guard against this problem, inspect the descriptive statistics, that is, the means anaalyse standard deviations or variances for such a correlation.

Obviously, if we estimate, based on some data set, the discriminant functions that best discriminate between groups, and then use the same data to evaluate how accurate our prediction is, then we are very much capitalizing on chance.

Suppose we measure height in a random sample of 50 dicriminante and 50 females. To index Classification Another major purpose to which discriminant analysis is applied is the issue of predictive classification of cases.

Discriminant Function Analysis | SPSS Data Analysis Examples

The classification functions can be used to determine to which group each case most likely belongs. It is not uncommon to obtain very good classification if one uses the same cases from which the classification functions were computed.


Each function allows us to compute classification scores for each case for each group, by applying the formula: The major xiscriminante threat to the validity of significance tests occurs when the means for variables across groups are correlated with the variances or standard deviations. When there are more than two groups, then we can estimate more than one discriminant function like the one presented analyee. To summarize the discussion so far, the basic idea underlying discriminant function analysis is to determine whether groups differ with regard to the mean of a variable, and then to use that variable to predict group membership e.

Some software packages will automatically compute those probabilities discriminange all cases or for selected cases only for cross-validation studies.

Select the method for entering the independent variables. In practice, the researcher needs to ask him or herself whether the unequal number of cases in different groups in the sample is a reflection of the true distribution in the population, or whether it is only the random result of the sampling procedure.

Discover Which Variables Discriminate Between Groups, Discriminant Function Analysis

Linear discriminant function analysis i. How to cite this page. The procedure is most effective when group membership is a truly categorical variable; if group membership is based on values of a continuous variable for example, high IQ versus low IQconsider using linear regression to take advantage of the richer information that is offered by the continuous variable itself.

Appendix The following code can be used to calculate the scores manually: Structure Matrix — This is the canonical structure, also known as canonical loading or discriminant loading, of the discriminant functions. In this example, we specify in the groups subcommand that we are interested in the variable job, and we list in parenthesis the minimum and maximum values seen in job. Intuitively, if there is large variability in a group with particularly high means on some variables, then those high means are not reliable.

These eigenvalues are related to the canonical correlations and describe how much discriminating ability a function possesses.


If your grouping variable does not have integer values, Automatic Recode on the Transform menu will create a variable that does. As in MANOVA, one could first perform the multivariate test, and, if statistically significant, proceed to see which of the variables have significantly different means across the groups.

A biologist could record different characteristics of similar types groups of flowers, and then perform a discriminant function analysis to determine the set of characteristics that allows for the best discrimination between the types.

Discriminant Function Analysis | SPSS Data Analysis Examples

The distribution of the scores from each function is standardized to have a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Because we compute the location of each case from our prior knowledge of the values for that case on the variables in the model, these probabilities are called posterior probabilities.

The score is calculated in the same disdriminante as a predicted value from a linear regression, using the standardized coefficients and the standardized variables.

We know that the function scores have a mean of zero, and we can check this by looking at the sum of the group means multiplied by the number of cases in each group: We can see that in this example, all of the observations in the dataset were successfully classified. For a given alpha level, such as 0. Predicted Group Membership — These are the predicted frequencies of groups from the analysis.

Again, minor deviations are not that important; however, before accepting final conclusions for an important study it is probably a good idea to review the within-groups variances and correlation matrices. These correlations will give us some indication of how much unique information each predictor will contribute to the analysis.

Below is a list of some analysis methods you may have encountered.